The Accidental Citizen

The Accidental Citizen?

Below is the Introduction to the report. Read the full report above or click here to download in PDF.


Through the fall and winter of 2009-10, a series of exit interviews was conducted across Canada with a group of 65 former Members of the Canadian Parliament. This was the initiative of Michael MacMillan and Alison Loat, who created the charitable organization Samara to study citizen engagement with Canadian democracy.

Many organizations hold exit interviews with departing employees with an eye to gathering ideas on how best to improve the organization’s performance and the experience of current and future employees. However, in our federal Parliament – one of the most important workplaces in the country – this information is not gathered with any frequency. In fact, we believe this series of MP exit interviews to be the first large-scale, systematic effort to do so in Canada.

We interviewed those who left public life during or after the 38th and 39th Parliaments, which sat from 2004 to 2008. These “Parliamentary graduates” served, on average, for 10.3 years. Many came to public life at a particular point in our political history: when the Bloc Québécois, the Reform Party and later the merged Conservative Party of Canada rose as important players on the national stage. Each MP served in at least one minority Parliament. This report should be read with this context in mind.

These interviews also allowed for personal reflection, which provides different and often more detailed information than that received from polls, surveys or from daily media. It is important to recognize that this report is not a commentary on how one becomes a cabinet minister or a prime minister. This is a reflection of how 65 Canadians became Members of Parliament.

With introductions from the Canadian Association of Former Parliamentarians, we were able to conduct most of these interviews in person. The MPs welcomed us into their communities and often into their homes. They allowed us to record each interview and granted us permission to use the information gathered to advance public understanding of their roles.

In these interviews, we asked the former Parliamentarians to describe what brought them to public life. We also asked about the essential role of the MP and how they spent their time, including: how they interacted with civil society, with their constituents and through the media; what they viewed as their accomplishments; what frustrated them; what advice they had for future MPs and their opinions on how to strengthen our democracy. 

We approached this project as documentarians, reporting how the MPs described their feelings and what they believed. We assume that, like all of our memories, theirs may be coloured by the passage of time and affected by how they chose to interpret their own lives and experiences.

This report will focus on the first part of those interviews, where the former Parliamentarians discussed their motivations and paths to politics. It sets the stage for a larger series of reports based on the MP exit interviews. Our purpose is neither to applaud nor embarrass MPs, but to understand political leadership and the role of Parliamentarians in our system. We hope these reports will become a catalyst for a knowledgeable discussion of Canadian public life, and a provocation for greater engagement with it. 

One benefit of speaking to such a large number of former Parliamentarians is that our report is based on the analysis of dozens of different perspectives. It is also notable that our main observations were largely consistent between genders, among regions and across party lines.

Read the full report above or click here to download in PDF.

Samara's Exit Interviews are now a bestselling book! 

In Tragedy in the Commons, Alison Loat and Michael MacMillan, Samara's founders, draw on an astonishing eighty exit interviews with former Members of Parliament from across the political spectrum to unearth surprising observations about the practice of politics in Canada.

Loat and MacMillan ask: Just what do we want Members of Parliament to be doing? To whom are they accountable? And should parties be trusted with the enormous power they wield with such little oversight or citizen involvement?

With unprecedented access to the perspective and experience of Canada's public leaders, Tragedy in the Commons concludes by offering solutions for improving the way politics works in Canada, and how all Canadians can reinvigorate a democracy that has lost its way, its purpose and the support of the public it is meant to serve.

Read more.

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News & Reviews of ​Tragedy in the Commons

An excerpt of Tragedy in the Commons in Policy Options

Kevin Newman said "I learned a lot from this book and I've been covering politics my whole life." See Alison on CTV's Kevin Newman Live (interview starts at 29:20).

"The tragedy of the House of Commons: A new book explores the lives and frustrations of our MPs" by Aaron Wherry on

Alison and Michael on CPAC’s Primetime Politics. To watch, search for April 28th (interview starts at 40:00).

Tragedy in the Commons: through the eyes of MPs. Alison discusses the book on The West Block.

“Why have members of Parliament allowed their power to be siphoned away as they have?” Get a sneak peek at the book from this excerpt in the Ottawa Citizen.

"How do MPs really feel about their job and the work they do?" Alison Loat and Michael MacMillan on CanadaAM (video).

"When MPs hate politics, it's time for change" by Liz Renzetti in the Globe and Mail. 

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