Locally Grown

Locally Grown

Locally Grown

In Canada, federal and provincial legislators tend to command the spotlight. But much less is known about the thousands of municipal politicians who, apart from ensuring potholes are filled and garbage is collected, are doing the vital work of designing and redesigning their communities. They are responsible for the public services that Canadians experience most directly, and can meaningfully shape attitudes toward, and expectations of, public institutions.

In 2020, the Samara Centre for Democracy joined the Canadian Municipal Barometer, a partnership of universities and researchers surveying municipal politicians in the more than 400 municipalities across Canada. From Corner Brook, Newfoundland, to Squamish, British Columbia, over 940 councillors, mayors, reeves, and borough councillors responded to the first annual Canadian Municipal Barometer survey, shedding light on their paths to politics and lives as local politicians.

Read the report below or download the PDF.

Key findings

  • City council is not a gateway office: High-profile examples of municipal politicians making the leap to provincial or federal politics are the exception, not the rule. Only 5% of respondents said it is very likely they will run for provincial or federal office, even after nearly half said they have been actively recruited. Generally speaking, local politicians do not see themselves as a “farm team” for provincial, territorial, or federal politics.
  • Civil society talent pipeline: Only a minority of local politicians take an explicitly political path to office, through advocacy, partisan involvement, or holding other offices. Most point to involvement in community associations and neighbourhood groups as experiences that helped them prepare for public life.
  • Lonely work, hours vary: The survey probes the capacity of councillors and mayors, and asks how they spend their time. Unlike other orders of government, the job of municipal politician is still often treated as a part-time commitment, rather than a full-time profession. The result is that half of respondents are only part-time representatives, and, of those, most hold other jobs. Three-quarters of respondents have no staff support.
  • Not all roads lead to City Hall: Diversity in representation is pivotal in ensuring all voices can be heard at the decision-making table. The findings of this report confirm that Canadian municipalities have a long way to go in diversifying local government. Only 31% of respondents are women, 91% are white, 70% are 50 years old or older, and white-collar professionals are heavily overrepresented. 


The data analyzed in this report was taken from the Canadian Municipal Barometer, an annual survey of elected municipal officials in every Canadian municipality with a population greater than 9,000. The survey is administered by a pan-Canadian partnership of academic and non-academic institutions, led by Jack Lucas of the University of Calgary.

The survey was conducted online in English or French. Invitations to complete the 2020 Canadian Municipal Barometer survey were distributed by email on January 6, 2020, and the survey closed on February 28, 2020. A total of 841 individuals completed the survey questions examined in this report, with at least one respondent from 85% of the municipalities included in the survey.

If you have any questions regarding the methodology or data, please contact us.